Fair use is an exception to the rights of copyright owners, allowing the public to make limited uses of a protected work.
It can be defined as a limited right to use a copyrighted work without the copyright owner's consent - often under confined circumstances - for purposes such as:
Fair use is essentially a balancing act, against the growing area of protections that copyright law grants to owners.
Crews, K. (2020) Copyright Law for Librarians and Educators: Creative Strategies and Practical Solutions (4th edition). ALA Editions, Chicago. p. 95.