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Resources related to the concept of privacy from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Computer Science

Hansen, M., Jensen, M., & Rost, M. (2015, May). Protection goals for privacy engineering. In Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE (pp. 159-166). Paper retrieved from  Presentation retrieved from

Privacy Management Reference Model and Methodology (PMRM) Version 1.0. Edited by Michele Drgon, Gail Magnuson, and John Sabo. 17 May 2016. OASIS Committee Specification 02. Latest version:


HEISC Working Group. (2017). The Higher Education Chief Privacy Officer Primer, Part 2 A Roadmap for Chief Privacy Officers in Higher Education. Retrieved from

Center for Democracy and Technology. (2019). Chief Privacy Officers: Who are they and why education leaders need them. Retrieved from

US Department of Education. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. Retrieved from


Fornaciari, F. (2018). What is privacy anyway? A longitudinal study of media frames of privacy. Journal of Intellectual Freedom and Privacy, 3(1), 8-20. doi:

Neill, E. (2001). Rites of Privacy and the Privacy Trade : On the Limits of Protection for the Sacred Self. Montreal: MQUP. Retrieved from

Solove, D. Conceptualizing Privacy. (2002). California Law Review, 90(4), 1088.

Governmental/State Standards - United States

Office of Privacy and Data Protection
From state of Washington. Provides guides and checklists related to privacy.

Grumbling, E., National Academies of Sciences, E. and M. (U. S. ., & United States. (2016). Privacy Research and Best Practices : Summary of a Workshop for the Intelligence Community. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved from

"An Introduction to Privacy Engineering and Risk Management in Federal Systems" NISTIR 8062 Available at (PDF below)

CalOPPA: California Online Privacy Protection Act. (2003).

Harris, Kamala. (2014). Making your privacy practices public. Retrieved from

Governmental - International

DLA Piper Global Data Protection Laws.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2013). OECD Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data. Retrieved from

Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data. (1995). PDF Retrieved from HTML Retrieved from

EU General Data Protection Regulation. (2019). GDPR Privacy Policy. Retrieved from

PIPEDA: Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act. Summary retrieved from

Full Act retrieved from

Australia Privacy Act of 1988. Summary retrieved from Law retrieved from

Health / Medicine

US Department of Health and Human Services. HIPAA Privacy Rule.

US Department of Health and Human Services. Summary of the HIPAA Privacy Rule.

Fairchild, A. L., Wolfe, D., Colgrove, J. K., & Bayer, R. (2007). Searching Eyes : Privacy, the State, and Disease Surveillance in America. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved from

Historic/Cultural views of Privacy

McDougall, B. S., & Hansson, A. (2002). Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden [Netherlands]: Brill. Retrieved from

Ando, C., & R, ơpke, J©œrg. (2015). Public and Private in Ancient Mediterranean Law and Religion. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter. Retrieved from

Orlin, L. C. (2008). Locating Privacy in Tudor London. Oxford: OUP Oxford. Retrieved from


Human Subject Research / IRB

Office of Research. University of California Irving. Privacy and Confidentiality. Retrieved from

US Department of Health and Human Services. Institutional Review Boards and the HIPAA Privacy Rule. Retrieved from

CITI Program.


APA's Principles of Journalism - While they do not mention privacy specifically, these principles guide journalists.

Privacy for Journalists - This OER from Media Helping Media provides a discussion of privacy in journalism.

Law Enforcement

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.) Privacy Policy. Retrieved from

Gregory, A., & Independent Institute, O. C. . (2016). American Surveillance : Intelligence, Privacy, and the Fourth Amendment. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. Retrieved from

Beckley, A. (2004). The Future of Privacy in Law Enforcement. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 73(9), 16–23. Retrieved from

Waldo, J., Lin, H., & Millett, L. I. (2007). Engaging privacy and information technology in a digital age. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. Chapter 9. Retreived from


Rengel, A. (2013). Privacy in the 21st Century. Leiden: Brill | Nijhoff.

Regan, P. M. (1995). Legislating Privacy : Technology, Social Values, and Public Policy. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved from

Solove, D. J. (2005). A taxonomy of privacy. U. Pa. L. Rev., 154, 477. Retrieved from

Posner, Richard A. (1978). An Economic Theory of Privacy. Regulation 2(3), 19–26. Retrieved from

Glancy, D.J. (1979). The invention of the right to privacy. Arizona Law Review 21(1), 1-39. Retrieved from


Library Bill of Rights.

Chmara, T. (2009). Privacy and Confidentiality Issues : A Guide for Libraries and Their Lawyers. Chicago: ALA Editions. Retrieved from

Magi, T. J. (2011). Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature. Library Quarterly, 81(2), 187–209. Retrieved from


Matthews, J. and Harel, O. (2011). Data confidentiality: A review of methods for statistical disclosure limitation and methods for assessing privacy. Statistics Surveys 5: 1-29. Retrieved from


Scoglio, S. (1998). Transforming Privacy : A Transpersonal Philosophy of Rights. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved from

Elliott, D., & Soifer, E. (2017). Divine omniscience, privacy, and the state. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 82(3), 251–271.

Richardson, J. (2011). The Changing Meaning of Privacy, Identity and Contemporary Feminist Philosophy. Minds & Machines, 21(4), 517–532.

Schoeman, F. D. (2001). privacy. In L. C. Becker, & C. B. Becker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of ethics (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge. Retrieved from

Meijers, A. (2015). philosophy of technology. In R. Audi (Ed.), The Cambridge dictionary of philosophy (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from

Hinman, L. M. (2018). Basic principles, concepts, and ideas in the philosophy of technology. In A. F. Beavers (Ed.), Macmillan Interdisciplinary handbooks: Philosophy: Technology. New York City, New York: Macmillan US. Retrieved from

Privacy. (2018). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from


Tunick, M. (2013). Privacy and Punishment. Social Theory & Practice, 39(4), 643–668.

Privacy. (2006). In B. S. Turner (Ed.), Cambridge dictionary of sociology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from


Werner, C. M., Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (2004). Privacy. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science & Technology. Retrieved from

Seminal Works and Top Researchers

Brandeis, L., & Warren, S. (1890). The right to privacy. Harvard law review, 4(5), 193-220.

Calo, R. (2016). Privacy and Markets: A Love Story. Notre Dame Law Review, 91(2).

Cavoukian, A. (2009). Privacy by design: The 7 foundational principles. Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada.

 Hann, I. H., Hui, K. L., Lee, S. Y. T., & Png, I. P. (2007). Overcoming online information privacy concerns: An information-processing theory approach. Journal of Management Information Systems, 24(2), 13-42. Retrieved from

Nissenbaum, H. (2011). Contextual Approach to Privacy Online. Dædalus, 140(4), 32-48.

Posner, Richard A. 1978. The Right of Privacy. Georgia Law Review 12:393-422. Retrieved from

Prosser, William L.. Privacy, 48 Calif. L. Rev. 383 (1960).

Rachels, J. (1975). Why privacy is important. Philos Public Aff, 4(4), 323–333. Retrieved from

Solove, D. (2002). Conceptualizing Privacy. California Law Review, 90(4), 1088. Retrieved from doi:10.2307/3481326

Stigler, George J. 1980. An Introduction to Privacy in Economics and Politics. Journal of Legal Studies 9:623-44. Retrieved from

Sweeney, L. (2002). k-anonymity: A model for protecting privacy. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems, 10(05), 557-570.

Westin, A. (2003). Social and Political Dimensions of Privacy. Journal of social issues, 59(2), 431-453.