As a responsible researcher, make ethical use of information.
A. Respect intellectual property
1. Copyright law protects (1) literary works; (2) musical works, including any accompanying words; (3) dramatic works, including any accompanying music; (4) pantomimes and choreographic works; (5) pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works; (6) motion pictures and other audiovisual works; (7) sound recordings; and (8) architectural works.
2. As original work that is fixed in a tangible medium, material on the Web is protected. It is illegal to grab an image off someone else's web page and put it on your web page without the permission of the copyright owner.
3. For educational purposes, some uses of copyrighted material are allowed. In general, you can use only a small part of another's work and must give credit to the source.
B. Why cite?
1. To give credit to those whose work you have used (whether by direct quote or by paraphrasing). Academic ethics require that writers be credited for their work and their writing. If you intentionally or unintentionally use the work of another without giving proper credit, you have plagiarized.
2. To provide evidence to support what you are saying.
A good bibliography of high-quality material demonstrates that your project is based on credible evidence. When well-integrated into your paper (or project), that evidence creates a strong and convincing paper or project. If your work is based on poor evidence, the credibility of your project is undermined.
3. To allow your readers to find and read your sources.
Professionals often trace back to the original sources to expand their own understanding and to use those sources in their own research.
C. Why a specific citation style?
1. Using a consistent style in a bibliography (or reference list) lets the reader know where in the citation to expect to find a title, where to expect to find an author, etc -- without actually labeling the parts of the citation. It makes it easier for your readers to understand your citations and find the sources you have cited.
2. Although a variety of citation styles exist, each academic discipline will usually use a specific style. By using a single style such as APA or IEEE, a profession's readers are familiar with the style and understand how to read and interpret it.
D. What do I need to know?
1. How to cite sources within the body of the paper
2. How to create a list of sources cited in your paper -- the "bibliography" or list of "references."
Plagiarism isn't always intentional. Often, it happens accidentally through improper citation.
Here are some common types of plagiarism:
The best method to avoid plagirism is to properly cite and credit the work of others.
The sources listed below provide assistance and examples of the APA style.
I. Best STARTING POINT on the Web for citation examples:
A. Using APA Format (by Purdue University's Writing Lab).
Includes both textual and electronic examples.
II. From APA itself!
A. APA Guide (in print in the Library):
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Washington, D.C.:
American Psychological Association, 2010.
In print in Mundt Library, location is -- REFERENCE : BF76.7 .P83
III. Additional citation examples if needed:
A. APA Documentation Style, University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center.
Excellent source of documentation guidelines for APA. Link to "Reference List" for the stylesheet that will help you create your bibliography or to "Parenthetical citations" to see how to cite within the body of your paper.
B. How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style, by Chelsea Lee. http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html
C. Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism: Documentation Guidelines, Duke University Libraries.
Source of documentation guidelines for APA (and also MLA, Chicago, and Turabian styles).
Karl E. Mundt Library, Dakota State University, Madison, South Dakota 57042